# Source code for pytorch3d.loss.mesh_laplacian_smoothing

```
# Copyright (c) Meta Platforms, Inc. and affiliates.
# All rights reserved.
#
# This source code is licensed under the BSD-style license found in the
# LICENSE file in the root directory of this source tree.
import torch
from pytorch3d.ops import cot_laplacian
[docs]def mesh_laplacian_smoothing(meshes, method: str = "uniform"):
r"""
Computes the laplacian smoothing objective for a batch of meshes.
This function supports three variants of Laplacian smoothing,
namely with uniform weights("uniform"), with cotangent weights ("cot"),
and cotangent curvature ("cotcurv").For more details read [1, 2].
Args:
meshes: Meshes object with a batch of meshes.
method: str specifying the method for the laplacian.
Returns:
loss: Average laplacian smoothing loss across the batch.
Returns 0 if meshes contains no meshes or all empty meshes.
Consider a mesh M = (V, F), with verts of shape Nx3 and faces of shape Mx3.
The Laplacian matrix L is a NxN tensor such that LV gives a tensor of vectors:
for a uniform Laplacian, LuV[i] points to the centroid of its neighboring
vertices, a cotangent Laplacian LcV[i] is known to be an approximation of
the surface normal, while the curvature variant LckV[i] scales the normals
by the discrete mean curvature. For vertex i, assume S[i] is the set of
neighboring vertices to i, a_ij and b_ij are the "outside" angles in the
two triangles connecting vertex v_i and its neighboring vertex v_j
for j in S[i], as seen in the diagram below.
.. code-block:: python
a_ij
/\
/ \
/ \
/ \
v_i /________\ v_j
\ /
\ /
\ /
\ /
\/
b_ij
The definition of the Laplacian is LV[i] = sum_j w_ij (v_j - v_i)
For the uniform variant, w_ij = 1 / |S[i]|
For the cotangent variant,
w_ij = (cot a_ij + cot b_ij) / (sum_k cot a_ik + cot b_ik)
For the cotangent curvature, w_ij = (cot a_ij + cot b_ij) / (4 A[i])
where A[i] is the sum of the areas of all triangles containing vertex v_i.
There is a nice trigonometry identity to compute cotangents. Consider a triangle
with side lengths A, B, C and angles a, b, c.
.. code-block:: python
c
/|\
/ | \
/ | \
B / H| \ A
/ | \
/ | \
/a_____|_____b\
C
Then cot a = (B^2 + C^2 - A^2) / 4 * area
We know that area = CH/2, and by the law of cosines we have
A^2 = B^2 + C^2 - 2BC cos a => B^2 + C^2 - A^2 = 2BC cos a
Putting these together, we get:
B^2 + C^2 - A^2 2BC cos a
_______________ = _________ = (B/H) cos a = cos a / sin a = cot a
4 * area 2CH
[1] Desbrun et al, "Implicit fairing of irregular meshes using diffusion
and curvature flow", SIGGRAPH 1999.
[2] Nealan et al, "Laplacian Mesh Optimization", Graphite 2006.
"""
if meshes.isempty():
return torch.tensor(
[0.0], dtype=torch.float32, device=meshes.device, requires_grad=True
)
N = len(meshes)
verts_packed = meshes.verts_packed() # (sum(V_n), 3)
faces_packed = meshes.faces_packed() # (sum(F_n), 3)
num_verts_per_mesh = meshes.num_verts_per_mesh() # (N,)
verts_packed_idx = meshes.verts_packed_to_mesh_idx() # (sum(V_n),)
weights = num_verts_per_mesh.gather(0, verts_packed_idx) # (sum(V_n),)
weights = 1.0 / weights.float()
# We don't want to backprop through the computation of the Laplacian;
# just treat it as a magic constant matrix that is used to transform
# verts into normals
with torch.no_grad():
if method == "uniform":
L = meshes.laplacian_packed()
elif method in ["cot", "cotcurv"]:
L, inv_areas = cot_laplacian(verts_packed, faces_packed)
if method == "cot":
norm_w = torch.sparse.sum(L, dim=1).to_dense().view(-1, 1)
idx = norm_w > 0
norm_w[idx] = 1.0 / norm_w[idx]
else:
L_sum = torch.sparse.sum(L, dim=1).to_dense().view(-1, 1)
norm_w = 0.25 * inv_areas
else:
raise ValueError("Method should be one of {uniform, cot, cotcurv}")
if method == "uniform":
loss = L.mm(verts_packed)
elif method == "cot":
loss = L.mm(verts_packed) * norm_w - verts_packed
elif method == "cotcurv":
# pyre-fixme[61]: `norm_w` may not be initialized here.
loss = (L.mm(verts_packed) - L_sum * verts_packed) * norm_w
loss = loss.norm(dim=1)
loss = loss * weights
return loss.sum() / N
```